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Soybean Commodity Survey
Soybean (Glycine max) is an annual crop in the Leguminosae family. The major soybean growing region of Ohio is the western half of the state; primarily counties in the northwest quadrant, although the crop can be found throughout the state. Summer Fruit Tortrix moth (Adoxophynes orana), Silver Y moth (Autographa gamma), Golden Twin Spot moth (Chrysodeixis chalcites), Old World Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), and Egyptian Cottonworm (Spodoptera littoralis) were surveyed in 2009 in cooperation with Ohio State University Extension.
Silver-Y moth is a polyphagous pest and is considered a high risk for establishment in temperate and mixed broadleaf forest habitats. Its known distribution includes all of Europe and extends east through Asia to India and China. Adults can be observed from April through November.
Golden Twin Spot moth is a polyphagous pest that feeds on the foliage and fruit of vegetable, fruit, and ornamental hosts. The moth is reported to breed/overwinter as far north in Europe as northern Spain and northern Italy. It is present year round in greenhouses in the Netherlands. A specimen was detected on Pelargonium in an Ohio greenhouse. Adults can be observed at any time of the year. Given Ohio's climate range the potential for establishment in the southern part of the state seems a real possibility.
Old World Bollworm damages a wide variety of food, fiber, and horticultural crops. Its polyphagous nature, high reproductive rate, and mobility make it suitable for establishment in man-made ecosystems and microclimates. Although its global distribution suggests Ohio's broadleaf and mixed forests would be suitable for the pest, it is not known to be established in the wild despite reported introductions. Adults can be observed from April through October.
Egyptian Cotton Leafworm has wide host range of at least 40 families. Potentially economically important hosts in Ohio include: onion, beet, cabbage, cauliflower, bell pepper, watermelon, soybean, sunflower, tomato, cereal crops, radish, roses, maize, and grape. The potential distribution in Ohio may reach as far north as the central part of the state where winters are mild. The pest can be observed any time of the year that plants are actively growing.
Summer Fruit Tortrix Moth is a native of Europe and Asia but is not known to occur in the United States. It feeds on Rosaceous hosts such as apple, cherry, pear, and others, as well as maple, alder, birch, hawthorn, forsythia, ash, honeysuckle, alfalfa, poplar, oak, rose, willow, elm, and lilac. Females lay yellow masses of eggs in early spring. The larvae emerge and leave behind the transparent shell of the eggs. The head of the larvae is light brown to yellow. It has a greenish body ornamented with warts and light hairs. When disturbed, the larvae spin a silken thread to escape. This thread is also a possible method for movement via wind. Mature larvae spin a 1/3 to 1/2 inch cocoon before molting into light brown pupae. Pupae darken as they mature. Adult moths are 1/3 to 1/2 inch long with brownish wings marked in a variable dark-brown pattern. Males are smaller than females and have brighter colors. Two to three generations may occur per year, depending on temperature.
The goals of this survey are to trap for these pests to 1) detect their presence if they do occur in the state and 2) demonstrate the absence of these pests by negative trapping results. In cooperation with Ohio State University extension, pheromone traps will be distributed throughout the central, north central and northwestern parts of the state. With the exception of Chrysodeixis chalcites, which was detected in an Ohio greenhouse, none of the pests listed is presently known to occur in the U.S.